Turnings are used continually in the construction of furniture, and they always appear smaller than a square stick of the same dimensions. This is apparent in the pictures below. No. 1 shows the projection of the corner of a parallelopiped (a solid figure with every side a parallelogram) beyond the inscribed cylinder turned from it. The angular projection exists whenever an abrupt change from a square to a turned section is made. As this is objectionable in furniture work, it is cut away by rounding off the angle as in No. 2, or by moulding it as in No. 3. Nevertheless if, as in these examples, the diameter of the cylinder and the side of the square are the same the turning appears so much smaller than the square portion of the stick that the transition is too great.
When the design of the table will allow, the square parts of the stick are cut down after the turning is made, so that they are a trifle smaller than the turned portions. This makes the two sections seem more nearly of the same dimensions, and is shown in No. 4, where a torus and fillet are also introduced to make the change of form more gradual. This same feature is shown in No. 5, where the angles of the square are cut away. The square is smaller than the diameter of the turning, and the torus is introduced to grade the transition. No. 6 is a longitudinal section of No. 5. The use of the torus or a bead between the square and turned parts of a table post seems desirable in most cases, whatever the profile of the turning. No. 7 shows it in use on a twisted turning.
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