Cabinet Door Hinges & Pivots
Doors of cabinets are composed of a framework enclosing wood panels. The uprights of the frame are the stiles and the horizontal parts are the rails. They are hung either with hinges or pivots. Hinges are more or less visible, but pivots are hidden. The diagram illustrates various applications of these methods, No. 1 shows the door hung with butts and without a rebate for the door to shut against. Such a door would be used in cabinets where the uninterrupted joint between the edge of the door and the side of the case is not objectionable. Notice also that unless the door can swing through an arc of 180 degrees the width of the opening is reduced by about the thickness of the door; or A in the illustration. In most instances a rebate to receive the door is desirable; and still the door hung with butts would reduce the size of the opening as at A, No. 2, unless the rebate is as deep as the door is thick, No. 3.
Doors for cabinets having drawers within are hung this latter way, as it enables one to pull out the drawer though the door is open at the right angle only. No. 4 shows how a door may be hung when the design calls for a pilaster on the corner of the case and yet the conditions require that a maximum width be given to the interior. An article having the door hung in this manner must stand; sufficiently away from the wall or other pieces of furniture to permit the pilaster to turn on the axis of the hinge.
The pivot pin, or center hinge is invisible and in high-class work this is an advantage. It is also strong, and is screwed to the upper edge of the top rail, and the lower edge of the bottom rail of the door in a position such that a strain does not start the screws. The illustration shows what it is like. There are two bars of metal narrow enough to be entirely concealed by the thickness of the door. In one of these bars is a hole receiving a pin, on the other bar. One of the bars, that with the socket, is set in the frame receiving the door, the other is on the door itself, and when complete the door turns on the pin as an axis.
It is well to set the pivot on a line through the middle of the thickness of the door; and about half the thickness of the door, plus an eighth of an inch, away from the post against which the door turns. That is, C = B + 1/8 inch. No. 5 shows a pivoted door in a position where it reduces the width of the door opening, and No. 6 shows the pivoted edge of the door turning in a hollow prepared for it and provided with stops against which the edge of the cloor strikes either when open or shut.
The thickness of door rails is dependent entirely on the size and design of the door; but the bottom rail is made a little wider than the top rail and side stiles which are of the same width.
The meeting stiles of a pair of doors are sometimes rebated, so the joint does not extend straight through.
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